English Alphabet and Words

English Alphabet

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language. The English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated from the Greek word alphabētos, which was made from the first two letters, alpha(α) and beta(β).

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form. It originated around the 7th century from the Latin script. Since then, letters have been added or removed to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters:

Upper-case Alphabet (also known as Capital Letters):

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Lower-case Alphabet:

a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v  w  x  y  z

The alphabets “A, E, I, O, U (upper case);  a, e, i, o, u (lower case)” are called Vowels.

All the alphabets excepting the vowels are called Consonants.

(Note: The article ‘a’ is placed before consonants; the article ‘an’ is placed before vowels)

1. I and U represent consonants in words such as “onion” and “quarter” respectively.
2. The letter Y sometimes represents a consonant (as in “young”) and sometimes a vowel (as in “myth”).
3. Rarely, W may represent a vowel (as in “cwm”)—a Welsh influence. The word “cwm”, pronounced as “KUUM”, is a noun and it means a a steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain; it may contain a lake.
4. W and Y are sometimes referred to as semi-vowels by linguists.

Generally, the letter most commonly used in English is E e, and the least used letter is Z z.


When uttered, each alphabet produces a distinct sound. When alphabets combine, then the sound produced by the combination of the alphabets is given a meaning by common usage, by acceptance of the majority, by agreement among linguists/ grammarians or by tradition. This meaningful sound originating from a combination of alphabets is known as a word. Thus, every word must have a unique sound and its corresponding meaning. Words that are similar in meaning are known as Synonyms. Words that are opposite in meaning are called as Antonyms. A book having a collection of all the words and their meanings is called a Dictionary. A book having a collection of all the words, their meanings, synonyms, antonyms, and example sentences is known as a Thesaurus.

Some alphabets/words combine before or after words to form new words. Alphabets/word that combine before words is known as a prefix; whereas, alphabets/word that combine after words is known as a suffix.


A prefix (pre = before; fix = attach) combines before a word. Some of the common prefixes are given below:

a- (not, without) asymmetric, acyclic, asexual, atonal, atheist
a- (verb > predicative adjective with progressive aspect) afloat
after- (following after, behind) aftermath, afterlife
ambi- (both) ambidextrous, ambivalent
an- (additional) anaerobic
an- (not, without) anemic
an-, ana- (up, against) anode, analog, anacardiaceous
Anglo- (relating to England) Anglo-Indian, Anglo-American, Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon
ante- (before) antechamber, antedate, antenatal
anti- (against, opposite) anti-freeze, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, anticlimax (Note: in some words, a hyphen is used after the prefix)
auto- (by oneself or itself) automobile, automatic
back- (behind an object/structure (locative/directional)) backhoe, backfire
be- (equipped with, covered with, beset with (pejorative or facetious)) bedeviled, becalm, bedazzle, bewitch
bi- (two) bicentennial
by- (near to, next to) byway, bypass, by-product
co- (joint, with, accompanying, together) co-worker, coordinator, cooperation, cohabitation
de- (reverse action, get rid of, negative, remove) de-emphasize, deactivate, demoralise
dis- (negative, remove, not, opposite of, reverse action, get rid of) disappear, disapprove
dis- (not, opposite of) disloyal, disagree
dis- (reverse action, get rid of) disconnect, disinformation
down- (from higher/greater to lower/lesser) download, downright, downbeat
dys- (negative, badly, wrongly) dysfunction
en-, em- (to make into, to put into, to get into) empower, enmesh
ex- (former) ex-husband, ex-boss, ex-colleague, ex-wife
fore- (before, in front) forearm, forerunner, forebode
hind- (after) hindsight, hindquarters
hyper- (more than required) hypercalcemia
hypo- (less than required) hypothroidism
ig- (before gn- or n-) ignoble, ignorant
il- (before l-) illegal, illegible
im- (before b-, m-, or p-) imbalance
in- (before most letters) inactive
ir- (before r-) irregular
macro- (large scale) macroeconomics
micro- (small-scale) micrometer
mid- (middle) midstream, midlife
midi- (medium-sized) midi-length
mini- (small) mini-market, mini-room, minivan
mis- (wrong, astray) misinformation, misguide, misfortune
non- (no, not) non-stop
off- (non-standard, away) off-colour, offish, offset, off-centre
on- (immediate proximity, locative) onset, ongoing, oncoming
out- (better, faster, longer, farther) outreach, outcome, outlier
over- (excess, too much; on top, above) overreact, overcoat, overbearing
post- (after, behind) post-election, post-graduation, post-war
pre- (before) precast, prequel
pro- (for, forward, in favour of) propulsion, propound, pro-life
re- (again, back) redo, revisit, rerun, reorganize, revitalise, rejuvenate
self- (self) self-sufficient, self-explanatory
step- (family relation by remarriage) stepbrother, stepsister, stepmother, stepfather
sub- (below) subzero, subway
twi- (two) twilight
un- (not, against, opposite of, remove, reverse action, deprive of, release from) unnecessary, unremarkable, unequal, undesirable, unhappy, unopened, undo, untie, unexpected, unlock
under- (below, beneath, lower in grade or dignity, lesser, insufficient) underachieve, underpass, undergo
up- (greater, higher, or better) upgrade, uplift, upright
with- (against, back, away (from)) withstand, withhold


A suffix (also called ending) is an affix that is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.

Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes) or lexical information (derivational/lexical suffixes).

Inflectional suffixes: Inflectional suffixes do not change the word class of the word after the inflection. Inflectional suffixes in Modern English include:
-s third person singular present
-ed past tense
-t past tense
-ing progressive/continuous
-en past participle
-s plural
-en plural (irregular)
-er comparative
-est superlative

Derivational suffixes usually change the word class of the word after the derivation. Derivational suffixes in Modern English include:
-ise/-ize (usually changes nouns into verbs)
-fy (usually changes nouns into verbs)
-ly (usually changes adjectives into adverbs)
-ful (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-able/-ible (usually changes verbs into adjectives)
-hood (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ess (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ness (usually changes adjectives into nouns)
-less (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ism (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ment (usually changes verbs into nouns)
-ist (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-al (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ish (usually changes nouns into adjectives/ class-maintaining, with the word class remaining an adjective)
-oid (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-like (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ity (usually changes adjectives into nouns)
-tion (usually changes verbs into noun)
-logy/-ology (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ant (usually changes verbs into nouns, often referring to a human agent)

1. Adams, Valerie. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London: Longman.
2. Bauer, Laurie. (1983). English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Brown, Roland W. (1927). Materials for word-study: A manual of roots, prefixes, suffixes and derivatives in the English language. New Haven, CT: Van Dyck & Co.
4. Simpson, John (Ed.). (1989). Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
5. Marchand, Hans. 1969. The categories and types of present-day English word-formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach. Munich: Beck
6. Wikipedia.org
7. Merriam-Webster.com


IELTS: Overview and Tips from IDP Education

An IELTS preparation product by IDP Education, featuring more than 40 minutes of IELTS tips, presented by IELTS Expert, Don Oliver.

0:51 Did you know?
5:02 Preparing for IELTS
9:05 IELTS test format
11:36 How your skills are assessed
15:37 FAQs about the Writing test
21:08 FAQs about the Reading test
25:04 FAQs about the Listening test
27:40 Watch a sample Speaking test
32:39 FAQs about the Speaking test
37:41 What to expect on test day
39:08 How you receive your results
41:46 Questions and answers
43:40 Next steps


Writing a medical curriculum vitae (CV)

blue and silver stetoscope
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

A curriculum vitae (CV) is a document that enables to secure an interview, a job, a post or a grant. It also serves as an updated record of skills and accomplishments gained so far.

A CV that is used to apply for medical jobs is known as a medical CV. Nowadays, most medical job applications are submitted online in a fixed format; nonetheless, CVs on paper or digital, are required for certain jobs like surgical training, general practice training, electives, portfolio assessment, grants, or any consultant post. Thus, the CV should be updated regularly, and also customized according to the job requirements.

A medical CV may have any number of headings. Nevertheless, past quantitative and qualitative medical studies recommend the following headings:

1. Introduction or Cover Letter
2. Personal details
3. Medical Career statement
4. Educational and Professional qualifications
5. Current job details
6. Previous job(s) details or Career History
7. Medical or non-medical voluntary work experience
8. Clinical audits or quality improvement work experience
9. Leadership and management skills in medical or non-medical fields
10. Publications and presentations
11. Teaching experience, formal or informal
12. Awards and prizes received
13. Organizing or participating in educational symposiums and training courses
14. Information Technology (IT) skills
15. Accreditation and Membership to professional bodies
16. Personal interests
17. Referees
18. Appendix, if required

The suggested content of the headings is as follows:

1. Introduction or Cover Letter

– the job role is explicitly mentioned. The purpose of the CV should be immediately identified as an application for the stated job role.
– a brief introduction of the applicant should be given.
– why the applicant wants to apply for the job role should be stated.
– it should not exceed a single page.

2. Personal details

– full name followed by abbreviated qualifications (for example, MD, MBBS, BSc).
– registered medical council number/medical defense number, if applicable.
– date of birth, nationality, and sex.
– contact details, including address, phone number and email. Only professional contact details should be provided and not personal contact details.

3. Medical Career statement

– highlight why the applicant is most suitable for the job, by stating relevant medical experience and skills.
– state how the job can help the applicant achieve future professional goals.

4. Educational and Professional qualifications

– the most recent qualification should be listed first.
– scanned qualifications may be placed in the Appendix, or website links may be provided.

5. Current job details

– state current job profile, role, responsibilities, and skills required.
– state other relevant information like the name of the hospital, name of the supervisor, and the date of joining.

6. Previous job(s) details or Career History

– list the relevant jobs held so far, with the most recent job first.
– there is no need to list all the jobs held in the past, and only the relevant jobs should be listed. For example, if the application is for a surgical job, then previous jobs where surgical skills were demonstrated, are relevant jobs and thus, they may be listed.
– listing should include the joining and the termination dates.
– briefly mention the relevant past job profile, role, responsibilities, skills required, and the names of the hospital and the supervisor.

7. Medical or non-medical voluntary work experience

– mention medical experience, for example specialty experience, gained voluntarily.
– state any non-medical experience, for example charity work, gained voluntarily.
– in both the cases, mention what the applicant gained from the voluntary work experiences.

8. Clinical audits or quality improvement work experience

– state any clinical audits or quality improvement works undertaken.
– include the starting and termination dates, the topic of the audit, the role performed, any best practices or guidelines employed, the conclusions reached, and the future consequences or outcomes.

9. Leadership and management skills in medical or non-medical fields

– a doctor must have leadership and management skills, which can be highlighted by showing examples of organizing events, supervising juniors, or holding positions in committees. These examples can relate to medical or non-medical fields.

10. Publications and presentations

– state the publications as they appear in journals and if available, also state the PubMed identification numbers. Any presentations, posters, audits or research projects can also be included in this section.

11. Teaching experience, formal or informal

– state what was taught and to whom it was taught. The topic and the audience should preferably be related to the medical profession. The teaching may be at any level of education and may also be in formal or informal settings. Feedback forms or signed certificates can provide the required evidence of the teaching experience. It is important to state what has been gained from this teaching experience.

12. Awards and prizes received

– list all the awards and prizes received so far, at work and in education. All listings should be ordered with the most recent one appearing on top. The awards that are most relevant to the job application should be highlighted.

13. Organizing or participating in educational symposiums and training courses

– include relevant training courses, for example, for a surgical job application a suturing course, or life support course, is a value addition to the CV. Research, teaching, or management courses are relevant for most medical jobs. Relevancy is also given to language courses or language examinations taken. Generally, courses related to the preparation of examinations are not relevant.
– brief details of each course should include the title, date, and duration of the course.
– the courses may be arranged geographically as regional, national, or international courses. They may also be arranged chronologically. Usually, they are arranged in the order of relevancy, with the courses most relevant to the job being listed first.

14. Information Technology (IT) skills

– include relevant skills in information technology like having the ability of prescribing drugs via a computer. IT skills may include knowing how to use basic software packages like MS Excel or Word, or specialist packages like databases and statistics packages for research.

15. Accreditation and Membership to professional bodies

– list all the society and professional memberships.
– listing should contain those memberships where the applicant has or had been elected.
– after the elected-memberships, the listing may contain those memberships where the applicant had to pay subscription fees or joining fees.

16. Personal interests

– personal interests show the applicant as a well-balanced individual. It is important that no exaggeration or fabrication is attempted while stating the personal interests.
– personal interests may include extracurricular activities like reading, playing golf, going to the gym, charity work, participation in free health clinics, blood donation camps, and any other interest.
– it is important to explain why the stated activity holds interest, what can be gained by doing the activity, and how the activity satisfies or improves the role of being a doctor.

17. Referees

– at least two letters of reference should be included.
– the referees must agree to issue their letters of reference.
– the referees should be made aware of the job role applied, so that they can formulate their letters accordingly.
– if the referees are currently not available, then the references may be listed as “available upon request”.
– any person can become a referee; however, medical professionals as referees are recommended for medical job applications.

18. Appendix, if required

– all scanned documents, suitably identified in the content, should be placed in the appendix.
– web links to relevant websites may also be placed.

A medical CV is formatted in an A4 size page in 12-point Times Roman or Arial font. The minimum margins are 1″ all around. The content should be brief and succinctly stated in bullet points. Large paragraphs should be avoided, and if more details need to be inserted then an Appendix may be included. All scanned copies of qualifications, photos, awards, certifications, and other relevant documents are placed in the Appendix.

The content of the CV should be structured in simple sentences with professional and appropriate medical terminology. Usage of active voice is encouraged along with a positive focus on skills gained. Under no circumstances should false or fabricated information be included and likewise, exaggeration should be strictly avoided.

There is no fixed number of pages for a medical CV. Generally, it is of about 3-4 pages long; however, if there is an Appendix, then the number of pages may increase significantly. The CV should be printed on high-quality white paper.

1. Scriven P. How to get a job in medicine: 1. Br J Hosp Med 1996;55:546–8. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8735028
2. Chambler AF, Chapman-Sheath PJ, Pearse MF. A model curriculum vitae: what are the trainers looking for? Hosp Med 1998;59:324–6.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9722375
3. Beckett M. A mentorship scheme for senior house officers. Hosp Med 2000;61:861–2.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11211589
4. Wright SM, Ziegelstein RC. Writing more informative letters of reference. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19(pt 2):588–93  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109330
5. Galdino GM, Gotway M. The digital curriculum vitae. J Am Coll Radiol 2005;2:183–8.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411789
6. Smith PEM, Dunstan FD, Wiles CM. Selecting specialist registrars by station interview. Clin Med 2006;6:279–80.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826862
7. McKenna AM, Straus SE. Charting a professional course: a review of mentorship in medicine. J Am Coll Radiol 2011;8:109–12.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292186
8. Agha R, Whitehurst K, Jafree D, Devabalan Y, Koshy K, Gundogan B. How to write a medical CV. Int J Surg Oncol (N Y). 2017;2(6):e32. https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01943953-201707000-00011


Few Lectures – YouTube videos

Note : These videos are not presented in any particular order and thus, no video is better than the other.

Shah Rukh Khan

Receiving his honorary doctorate degree

Dr Shah Rukh Khan, Bollywood actor, delivers his public lecture entitled Life Lessons. Dr Khan is one of the most influential actors in the world, having appeared in more than 80 Bollywood films. He has received 14 Filmfare Awards, honouring excellence in the Hindi language film industry. He was awarded one of India’s highest civilian awards, the Padma Shri, in 2005. In this lecture, Dr Khan talks about happiness, success, and lessons learnt throughout his career. Recorded on 15 October 2015 at the University of Edinburgh’s New College.

Julian Treasure

How to speak so that people want to listen

Have you ever felt like you’re talking, but nobody is listening? Here’s Julian Treasure to help you fix that. As the sound expert demonstrates some useful vocal exercises and shares tips on how to speak with empathy, he offers his vision for a sonorous world of listening and understanding.

Sir Ken Robinson

Do schools kill creativity?

Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and a moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.

Tony Robbins

Why we do what we do

Tony Robbins discusses the “invisible forces” that make us do what we do.

Elizabeth Gilbert

Your elusive creative genius

“Eat, Pray, Love” author Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses — and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person “being” a genius, all of us “have” a genius. It’s a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk.

Dan Gilbert

Why are we happy? Why aren’t we happy?

Dan Gilbert, author of Stumbling on Happiness, challenges the idea that we’ll be miserable if we don’t get what we want. Our “psychological immune system” lets us feel truly happy even when things don’t go as planned.

Mary Roach

10 things you didn’t know about orgasm

“Bonk” author Mary Roach delves into obscure scientific research, some of it centuries old, to make 10 surprising claims about sexual climax, ranging from the bizarre to the hilarious. (This talk is aimed at adults. Viewer discretion advised.)

Sophie Scott

Why we laugh

Did you know that you’re 30 times more likely to laugh if you’re with somebody else than if you’re alone? Cognitive neuroscientist Sophie Scott shares this and other surprising facts about laughter.

Mel Robbins

How to stop screwing yourself over

Mel Robbins is a married working mother of three, an ivy-educated criminal lawyer, and one of the top career and relationship experts in America. Widely respected for her grab-’em-by-the-collar advice and tough love, Robbins drills through the mental clutter that stands between people and what they want.

Pamela Meyer

How to spot a liar

On any given day we’re lied to from 10 to 200 times, and the clues to detect those lie can be subtle and counter-intuitive. Pamela Meyer, author of Liespotting, shows the manners and “hotspots” used by those trained to recognize deception — and she argues honesty is a value worth preserving.

Robyn Stein DeLuca

The good news about PMS

Everybody knows that most women go a little crazy right before they get their period, that their reproductive hormones cause their emotions to fluctuate wildly. Except: There’s very little scientific consensus about premenstrual syndrome. Says psychologist Robyn Stein DeLuca, science doesn’t agree on the definition, cause, treatment or even existence of PMS. She explores what we know and don’t know about it — and why the popular myth has persisted.

Simon Sinek

How great leaders inspire action

Simon Sinek presents a simple but powerful model for how leaders inspire action, starting with a golden circle and the question “Why?” His examples include Apple, Martin Luther King, and the Wright brothers — and as a counterpoint Tivo, which (until a recent court victory that tripled its stock price) appeared to be struggling.

Robert Kiyosaki

Rich Dad, Poor Dad – How To Invest In Yourself – Part 1/2 | London Real

Robert Kiyosaki is an entrepreneur, educator, and investor, best known as the author of Rich Dad Poor Dad—the #1 personal finance book of all time. He has challenged and changed the way tens of millions of people around the world think about money. And he has become a passionate and outspoken advocate for financial education.


Thik Hai

Perhaps the original video from which the other songs may have been inspired:

Khesari Lal Yadav:

Sunil Chhaila Bihari, Antra Singh Priyanka:

Tik Tok version:


Isme Tera Ghata Mera Kuch Nahin Jata

Song: Tera Ghata
Album: From Lost To Found
Singer/Composer/Lyricist: Gajendra Verma

कुछ सोच के बोला होगा तुमने
यह प्यार भी तोला होगा तुमने
अब ना है तो फिर ना सही दिलबर
इस दिल को यह समझा लिया हमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

कुछ खास था यह जान लेती जो
मेरी नज़र से देखा होता तुमने
इस बात का बस ग़म हुआ मुझको
थोड़ी सी भी कोशिश न की तुमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

सोचा नहीं था ज़िन्दगी में यूं मिलोगी
मिल के भी तुम न मेरी हो सकोगी
पर याद आएगी जब भी तुम्हारी
शिकायतें न होंगी बस दुआ रहेगी

अब और क्या कहना होगा हमने
करना था जो वह कर लिया तुमने
शायद रहूँ या ना रहूँ दिलबर
बदला कभी यह फैसला तुमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

Neha Kakkar:

Rajasthani Version: Tharo Ghato
Singers Anuj Chitlangia, Rapperiya Baalam
Lyrics: Jagirdar Rv
Music: Rapperiya Baalam
Guitar Saurabh Parihar
Backing Vocals : Arjan Singh

Rap Version: Tera Ghata
Music – Young H
Mix & Master – Young H
Rap Lyrics – J19Squad


Dil Kehta Hai Chal Unse Mil

Film: Akele Hum Akele Tum
Lyrics: Majrooh Sultanpuri

Kumar Sanu & Alka Yagnik:

दिल कहता है चल उनसे मिल
उठते हैं कदम रुक जाते हैं
दिल हमको कभी समझाता है
हम दिल को कभी समझाते हैं

हम जब से हैं जुदा ऎ मेरे हमनशीं
यूँ देखो तो मेरे दामन में क्या नहीं
दौलत का चाँद है शोहरत की चाँदनी
मगर तुम्हे खो के लगे है मुझे ऐसा
के तुम नहीं तो कुछ भी नहीं
तुम क्या जानो अब हम कितना
दिल हि दिल में पछताते हैं
दिल हमको कभी समझाता है
हम दिल को कभी समझाते हैं

वो दिन थे क्या हसीन दोनो थे साथ में
और बाहें आप की थी मेरे हाथ में
तुम ही तुम थे सनम मेरे दिन रात में
पर इतनी बुलंदी पे तुम हो मेरी जान
आए ना दामन अब हाथ में
पाना तुमको मुमकिन ही नहीं
सोचे भी तो हम घबराते हैं
दिल हमको कभी समझाता है
हम दिल को कभी समझाते हैं

दिल कहता है चल उनसे मिल
उठते हैं कदम रुक जाते हैं
दिल हमको कभी समझाता है
हम दिल को कभी समझाते हैं

Another version:

कब तक होश संभाले कोई
होश उड़े तो उड़ जाने दे
दिल कब सीधी राह चला है
राह मुड़े तो मुड़ जाने दे

तेरे ख़्याल में डूब के अक्सर
अच्छी लगें तन्हाई
सांस में तेरी सांस मिली तो
मुझे सांस आई
रूह ने छोड़ी जिस्म की खुशबू
तू जो पास आई