Music in the Ṛgveda

The hymns of the Rig-Veda are sung in three musical tones, namely: - udātta (raised, high tone), - anudātta (not-raised, low tone, below udātta), and - svarita (circumflex, middle tone, mixture of both high and low tones, generally from high to low). The Kṛṣṇayajurvediya-Taittirīya-Prātiśākhya mentions the three musical tones in verses 1-38 to 1-40, as …

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Swars & Saptaks

There are 7 basic notes or swars (Shadaj, Rishabh, Gandhar, Madhyam, Pancham, Dhaivat, Nishad) in the Hindustani Classical Music, which are called as Shuddha (pure) swars. Out of these swars Rishabh, Gandhar, Dhaivat and Nishad can be moved one note below and then they are called as komal (soft or flat) swars. So now there …

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