TOEFL is an acronym for Test Of English as a Foreign Language. It is a standardized test to measure the English language ability of non-native speakers wishing to enroll in English-speaking universities. TOEFL is a trademark of the Educational Testing Service (ETS), a private non-profit organization, which designs and administers the tests. ETS issues official score reports, sent independently to institutions, for two years following the test.
It is delivered in two formats namely, Internet-based test (iBT) and Paper-delivered test (PDT).
TOEFL iBT test (Internet-based)
It is a four-hour test consisting of four sections namely, Reading, Listening, Speaking and Writing. These sections focus on language used in an academic, higher-education environment. There is a mandatory break of about 10 minutes after the Reading and Listening sections.
The Reading section consists of questions on 3–5 passages, each containing 12–14 questions, approx. 700 words, and is of about 60-80 minutes. The passages are on academic topics; they are the kind of material that might be found in an undergraduate university textbook. Passages require understanding of rhetorical functions such as cause-effect, compare-contrast and argumentation. Students answer questions about main ideas, details, inferences, essential information, sentence insertion, vocabulary, rhetorical purpose and overall ideas. New types of questions in the TOEFL iBT test require filling out tables or completing summaries. Prior knowledge of the subject under discussion is not necessary to come to the correct answer.
The Listening section consists of 6–9 passages, each containing 5–6 questions, and is of approx. 60–90 minutes. These passages include two student conversations and four academic lectures or discussions. The conversations involve a student and either a professor or a campus service provider. The lectures are a self-contained portion of an academic lecture, which may involve student participation and does not assume specialized background knowledge in the subject area. Each conversation and lecture passage is heard only once. Test-takers may take notes while they listen and they may refer to their notes when they answer the questions. Each conversation is associated with five questions and each lecture with six. The questions are meant to measure the ability to understand main ideas, important details, implications, relationships between ideas, organization of information, speaker purpose and speaker attitude.
The Speaking section consists of six tasks: two independent and four integrated. The total duration is about 20 minutes. In the two independent tasks, test-takers answer opinion questions on familiar topics. They are evaluated on their ability to speak spontaneously and convey their ideas clearly and coherently. In two of the integrated tasks, test-takers read a short passage, listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and answer a question by combining appropriate information from the text and the talk. In the two remaining integrated tasks, test-takers listen to an academic course lecture or a conversation about campus life and then respond to a question about what they heard. In the integrated tasks, test-takers are evaluated on their ability to appropriately synthesize and effectively convey information from the reading and listening material. Test-takers may take notes as they read and listen and may use their notes to help prepare their responses. Test-takers are given a short preparation time before they have to begin speaking. The responses are digitally recorded, sent to ETS’s Online Scoring Network (OSN), and evaluated by three to six raters.
The Writing section measures a test taker’s ability to write in an academic setting and consists of two tasks: one integrated and one independent. The total duration is about 50 minutes. In the integrated task, test-takers read a passage on an academic topic and then listen to a speaker discuss it. The test-taker then writes a summary about the important points in the listening passage and explains how these relate to the key points of the reading passage. In the independent task, the test-taker must write an essay that states their opinion or choice, and then explain it, rather than simply listing personal preferences or choices. Responses are sent to the ETS OSN and evaluated by at least 3 different raters.
One of the sections of the test will include extra, uncounted material. Educational Testing Service includes extra material to pilot test questions for future test forms. When test-takers are given a longer section, they should give equal effort to all of the questions because they do not know which question will count and which will be considered extra. For example, if there are four reading passages instead of three, then one of the passages will not be counted. Any of the four could be the uncounted one.
TOEFL PDT test (Paper-delivered)
The TOEFL PDT is an official test for use where the internet test is unavailable, usually due to internet & computer issues. It consists of the Listening, Reading, and Writing sections, with scores that are the same scale as the Internet Based Test.
The iBT scoring is from 0 to 30 (in 1 point increments) on each of the 4 sections. So total of 0 to 120. The test is held more than 50 times a year. The test can be taken only once in any 12-day period. It can be taken in more than 4,500 test centers in more than 165 countries. The result is accepted by more than 10,000 colleges, agencies and other institutions in over 130 countries. The minimum score varies by institution and by course. Usually, the minimum TOEFL iBT score required for admission is somewhere between 61 to 110. For more details, kindly visit the official website.
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