English Alphabet and Words

English Alphabet

An alphabet is a standard set of letters (basic written symbols or graphemes) that represent the phonemes (basic significant sounds) of any spoken language. The English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated from the Greek word alphabētos, which was made from the first two letters, alpha(α) and beta(β).

The modern English alphabet is a Latin alphabet consisting of 26 letters, each having an upper- and lower-case form. It originated around the 7th century from the Latin script. Since then, letters have been added or removed to give the current Modern English alphabet of 26 letters:

Upper-case Alphabet (also known as Capital Letters):

A  B  C  D  E  F  G  H  I  J  K  L  M  N  O  P  Q  R  S  T  U  V  W  X  Y  Z

Lower-case Alphabet:

a  b  c  d  e  f  g  h  i  j  k  l  m  n  o  p  q  r  s  t  u  v  w  x  y  z

The alphabets “A, E, I, O, U (upper case);  a, e, i, o, u (lower case)” are called Vowels.

All the alphabets excepting the vowels are called Consonants.

(Note: The article ‘a’ is placed before consonants; the article ‘an’ is placed before vowels)

1. I and U represent consonants in words such as “onion” and “quarter” respectively.
2. The letter Y sometimes represents a consonant (as in “young”) and sometimes a vowel (as in “myth”).
3. Rarely, W may represent a vowel (as in “cwm”)—a Welsh influence. The word “cwm”, pronounced as “KUUM”, is a noun and it means a a steep-walled semicircular basin in a mountain; it may contain a lake.
4. W and Y are sometimes referred to as semi-vowels by linguists.

Generally, the letter most commonly used in English is E e, and the least used letter is Z z.


When uttered, each alphabet produces a distinct sound. When alphabets combine, then the sound produced by the combination of the alphabets is given a meaning by common usage, by acceptance of the majority, by agreement among linguists/ grammarians or by tradition. This meaningful sound originating from a combination of alphabets is known as a word. Thus, every word must have a unique sound and its corresponding meaning. Words that are similar in meaning are known as Synonyms. Words that are opposite in meaning are called as Antonyms. A book having a collection of all the words and their meanings is called a Dictionary. A book having a collection of all the words, their meanings, synonyms, antonyms, and example sentences is known as a Thesaurus.

Some alphabets/words combine before or after words to form new words. Alphabets/word that combine before words is known as a prefix; whereas, alphabets/word that combine after words is known as a suffix.


A prefix (pre = before; fix = attach) combines before a word. Some of the common prefixes are given below:

a- (not, without) asymmetric, acyclic, asexual, atonal, atheist
a- (verb > predicative adjective with progressive aspect) afloat
after- (following after, behind) aftermath, afterlife
ambi- (both) ambidextrous, ambivalent
an- (additional) anaerobic
an- (not, without) anemic
an-, ana- (up, against) anode, analog, anacardiaceous
Anglo- (relating to England) Anglo-Indian, Anglo-American, Anglo-Norman, Anglo-Saxon
ante- (before) antechamber, antedate, antenatal
anti- (against, opposite) anti-freeze, anti-inflammatory, antivirus, anticlimax (Note: in some words, a hyphen is used after the prefix)
auto- (by oneself or itself) automobile, automatic
back- (behind an object/structure (locative/directional)) backhoe, backfire
be- (equipped with, covered with, beset with (pejorative or facetious)) bedeviled, becalm, bedazzle, bewitch
bi- (two) bicentennial
by- (near to, next to) byway, bypass, by-product
co- (joint, with, accompanying, together) co-worker, coordinator, cooperation, cohabitation
de- (reverse action, get rid of, negative, remove) de-emphasize, deactivate, demoralise
dis- (negative, remove, not, opposite of, reverse action, get rid of) disappear, disapprove
dis- (not, opposite of) disloyal, disagree
dis- (reverse action, get rid of) disconnect, disinformation
down- (from higher/greater to lower/lesser) download, downright, downbeat
dys- (negative, badly, wrongly) dysfunction
en-, em- (to make into, to put into, to get into) empower, enmesh
ex- (former) ex-husband, ex-boss, ex-colleague, ex-wife
fore- (before, in front) forearm, forerunner, forebode
hind- (after) hindsight, hindquarters
hyper- (more than required) hypercalcemia
hypo- (less than required) hypothroidism
ig- (before gn- or n-) ignoble, ignorant
il- (before l-) illegal, illegible
im- (before b-, m-, or p-) imbalance
in- (before most letters) inactive
ir- (before r-) irregular
macro- (large scale) macroeconomics
micro- (small-scale) micrometer
mid- (middle) midstream, midlife
midi- (medium-sized) midi-length
mini- (small) mini-market, mini-room, minivan
mis- (wrong, astray) misinformation, misguide, misfortune
non- (no, not) non-stop
off- (non-standard, away) off-colour, offish, offset, off-centre
on- (immediate proximity, locative) onset, ongoing, oncoming
out- (better, faster, longer, farther) outreach, outcome, outlier
over- (excess, too much; on top, above) overreact, overcoat, overbearing
post- (after, behind) post-election, post-graduation, post-war
pre- (before) precast, prequel
pro- (for, forward, in favour of) propulsion, propound, pro-life
re- (again, back) redo, revisit, rerun, reorganize, revitalise, rejuvenate
self- (self) self-sufficient, self-explanatory
step- (family relation by remarriage) stepbrother, stepsister, stepmother, stepfather
sub- (below) subzero, subway
twi- (two) twilight
un- (not, against, opposite of, remove, reverse action, deprive of, release from) unnecessary, unremarkable, unequal, undesirable, unhappy, unopened, undo, untie, unexpected, unlock
under- (below, beneath, lower in grade or dignity, lesser, insufficient) underachieve, underpass, undergo
up- (greater, higher, or better) upgrade, uplift, upright
with- (against, back, away (from)) withstand, withhold


A suffix (also called ending) is an affix that is placed after the stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns or adjectives, and verb endings, which form the conjugation of verbs.

Suffixes can carry grammatical information (inflectional suffixes) or lexical information (derivational/lexical suffixes).

Inflectional suffixes: Inflectional suffixes do not change the word class of the word after the inflection. Inflectional suffixes in Modern English include:
-s third person singular present
-ed past tense
-t past tense
-ing progressive/continuous
-en past participle
-s plural
-en plural (irregular)
-er comparative
-est superlative

Derivational suffixes usually change the word class of the word after the derivation. Derivational suffixes in Modern English include:
-ise/-ize (usually changes nouns into verbs)
-fy (usually changes nouns into verbs)
-ly (usually changes adjectives into adverbs)
-ful (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-able/-ible (usually changes verbs into adjectives)
-hood (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ess (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ness (usually changes adjectives into nouns)
-less (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ism (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ment (usually changes verbs into nouns)
-ist (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-al (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ish (usually changes nouns into adjectives/ class-maintaining, with the word class remaining an adjective)
-oid (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-like (usually changes nouns into adjectives)
-ity (usually changes adjectives into nouns)
-tion (usually changes verbs into noun)
-logy/-ology (usually class-maintaining, with the word class remaining a noun)
-ant (usually changes verbs into nouns, often referring to a human agent)

1. Adams, Valerie. (1973). An introduction to modern English word-formation. London: Longman.
2. Bauer, Laurie. (1983). English word-formation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
3. Brown, Roland W. (1927). Materials for word-study: A manual of roots, prefixes, suffixes and derivatives in the English language. New Haven, CT: Van Dyck & Co.
4. Simpson, John (Ed.). (1989). Oxford English dictionary (2nd ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
5. Marchand, Hans. 1969. The categories and types of present-day English word-formation: A synchronic-diachronic approach. Munich: Beck
6. Wikipedia.org
7. Merriam-Webster.com


English Collocation List

Collocation is that behaviour of any language by which two or more words often go together, in speech or writing. In English language, for example, the two words “powerful computer” go together better than “strong computer”. Similarly, “strong tea” is preferred over “powerful tea” in spoken or written English.

There are about six main types of collocations:

1. adjective+noun
2. noun+noun (such as collective nouns)
3. verb+noun
4. adverb+adjective
5. verbs+prepositional phrase (phrasal verbs)
6. verb+adverb

The following list contains common collocations having all the above-mentioned six types:

A brief list of English collocations

abstract concept
academic achievement
academic career
(in) academic circles
academic community
academic debate
academic discipline
academic discourse
academic institution
academic journal
academic life
academic performance
academic research
academic skills
academic study
academic success
academic work
academic world
academic writing
academic year
accept responsibility
acceptable behaviour
accurate assessment
accurate description
accurate information
accurate measurement
accurate picture
accurate record
achieve goal
achieve (an) objective
achieve (an) outcome
acquire knowledge
active involvement
active participant
active participation
active role
(be) actively involved
acutely aware
acutely aware of (the) information
additional cost
additional information
additional problem
additional resources
additional support
address (an) issue
administrative practices
adopt (a) procedure
adopt (an) approach
advanced economy
advanced technology
adverse effect
adverse reaction
adversely affect
affect (the) outcome
affect (the) development (of)
allocate resources
allow access (to)
almost identical
alternative approach
alternative explanation
alternative form
alternative interpretation
alternative means
alternative method
alternative model
alternative solution
alternative source
alternative strategy
alternative view
alternative way
ample evidence
analytical approach
analytical tool
anecdotal evidence
annual conference
annual meeting
annual rate
annual report
annual review
apply equally
apply (a) method
apply (the) theory
appropriate action
appropriate behaviour
appropriate conditions
appropriate data
appropriate form
appropriate language
appropriate level
appropriate point
appropriate response
appropriate skills
appropriate treatment
appropriate way
armed conflict
artificial intelligence
assess (the) impact (of)
assessment process
associated factors
assume responsibility
assume (the) role (of)
atomic energy
attend (a) conference
available data
available evidence
available information
available resources
average score
background knowledge
basic assumption
basic component
basic concept
basic element
basic function
basic information
basic premise
basic principle
basic research
basic structure
basic technique
bear resemblance (to)
become apparent
become available
become aware
become blurred
become established
become evident
become independent
become involved (with/in)
become obvious
become visible
become widespread
become (a) source (of)
become (the) focus (of)
begin (a) process
behave differently
beneficial effect
(be) best described (as, in terms of)
binary opposition
binary system
biological evolution
biological science
biological sex
brief account
brief description
brief discussion
brief history
brief introduction
brief overview
brief period
brief review
brief summary
brief time
briefly describe
briefly discuss
broad agreement
broad category
broad definition
(a) broad range (of)
broad spectrum
broader context
(be) broadly defined
broadly similar
business sector
business transaction
capitalist country
capitalist economy
capitalist society
capitalist system
capitalist world
career development
career opportunity
careful analysis
careful attention
careful consideration
careful thought
(be) carefully controlled
(be) carefully selected
carry information
carry out research (of)
carry out (the) task
cast doubt (on)
causal link
causal relation
causal relationship
cause consequences
cause stress
central authority
central concept
central concern
central control
central core
central feature
central focus
central government
central importance
central issue
central part
central point
central position
central problem
central question
central role
central tenet
central theme
certain aspect
certain assumptions
certain characteristics
certain circumstances
change constantly
change dramatically
change rapidly
change (an) attitude
changing attitudes
changing circumstances
changing nature
changing needs
changing pattern
changing world
characteristic feature
chemical reaction
civil case
civil society
class consciousness
classic example
classic study
classic text
classic work
classical theory
clear boundary
clear distinction
clear evidence
clear focus
clear indication
clear relationship
clear statement
clear structure
(be) clearly defined
(be) clearly demonstrated
(be) clearly established
clearly evident
(be) clearly identified
clearly important
(be) clearly related (to)
clearly understand
clearly visible
climate change
climatic conditions
close contact
close proximity
close relationship
close scrutiny
(be) closely allied (to, with)
(be) closely associated (with)
(be) closely connected (to, with)
(be) closely linked (to, with)
(be) closely related (to)
closely resemble
(be) closely tied
(upon, on) closer examination
(on/upon) closer inspection
closer look
cognitive ability
cognitive development
cognitive skills
collaborative learning
collect data
collect information
collective action
collective identity
collective memory
combined effect
come into conflict (with)
come into contact (with)
commercial activity
commercial transaction
commit (a) crime
commit (an) offence
common ancestor
common approach
common assumption
common characteristic
common culture
common error
common feature
common goal
common method
common source
common theme
common usage
(be) commonly accepted
(be) commonly associated (with)
(be) commonly called
(be) commonly encountered
(be) commonly found (in)
(be) commonly known (as)
(be) commonly referred (to) (as)
(be) commonly used
communicate effectively
comparative analysis
comparative research
comparative study
compelling argument
compelling evidence
compelling reason
competitive market
competitive pressure
complete (a) task
complex area
complex interaction
complex issue
complex pattern
complex problem
complex process
complex question
complex relationship
complex set
complex situation
complex structure
complex system
comprehensive account
comprehensive approach
comprehensive overview
comprehensive review
comprehensive system
conceptual framework
concerted effort
concluding remarks
concluding section
conditional probability
conduct research
conduct (a) study
conduct (a) survey
conduct (an) analysis
conduct (an) interview
conflict resolution
conflicting interests
consider appropriate
consider relevant
consider (a) possibility
consider (an) aspect
consider (an) issue
consider (the) impact (of)
consider (the) implications
consider (the) role (of)
(a) considerable amount (of)
considerable attention
considerable debate
(a) considerable degree (of)
(in) considerable detail
considerable effort
considerable evidence
(to a) considerable extent
(be of) considerable importance
considerable influence
considerable interest
considerable research
considerable support
considerable variation
consistent pattern
consistent results
constant rate
constituent elements
constituent parts
contain information
contain (an) element
contemporary debate
contemporary issue
contemporary life
contemporary society
contemporary world
contextual factors
continued existence
continued growth
continued use
continuous process
contribute significantly
contribute to (the) development (of)
controversial issue
conventional view
conventional wisdom
convey information
convey meaning
convey (a) message
convincing evidence
coping strategy
core area
core element
core issue
core skills
core value
correct interpretation
correct (an) error
counter argument
cover (a) range (of)
cover (a) topic
cover (an) area
create conditions
create opportunities
create problems
create (an) environment
create (an) impression
create (an) opportunity
creative process
creative thinking
creative work
criminal offence
critical analysis
critical approach
critical attention
critical essay
critical evaluation
critical examination
critical factor
critical importance
critical inquiry
critical introduction
critical issue
critical perspective
critical point
critical reflection
critical review
critical role
critical scrutiny
critical theory
critical thinking
critical writing
critically evaluate
crucial difference
crucial factor
crucial importance
crucial part
crucial point
crucial question
crucial role
cultural activity
cultural aspect
cultural attitudes
cultural background
cultural boundary
cultural change
cultural context
cultural differences
cultural dimension
cultural diversity
cultural factors
cultural heritage
cultural history
cultural identity
cultural influence
cultural institution
cultural issue
cultural life
cultural norm
cultural perspective
cultural phenomenon
cultural practice
cultural significance
cultural theory
cultural tradition
cultural values
culturally specific
current climate
current issue
current policy
current research
current status
current technology
current trend
currently available
daily living
data gathering
data set
deal (with an) issue
deem appropriate
deem necessary
(a) deep understanding (of)
(at/on a) deeper level
(be) deeply embedded
(be) deeply rooted
defining characteristic
defining concept
defining feature
deliberate attempt
democratic institution
democratic process
democratic society
democratic state
demographic change
demographic characteristics
demographic factor
demonstrate competence
(be) densely populated
deny access (to)
dependent variable
describe (a) method
describe (a) process
describe (a) procedure
descriptive statistics
desired outcome
detailed analysis
detailed examination
detailed information
detailed study
develop (a) method
develop (a) strategy
develop (a) technique
develop (a) theory
develop (an) approach
develop (an) argument
developmental process
developmental stage
diagnostic test
differ considerably
differ significantly
differ widely
digital information
digital media
digital technology
direct access
direct communication
direct consequences
direct contact
direct evidence
direct impact
direct involvement
direct link
direct observation
direct relationship
direct role
directly affect
(be) directly affected
(be) directly connected (to, with)
(be) directly involved (in)
(be) directly linked (to, with)
(be) directly proportional (to)
(be) directly related (to)
(be) directly responsible (for)
disclose information
discuss (a) topic
discuss (an) issue
disposable income
distinct group
distinct type
distinctive feature
distinguishing feature
diverse background
diverse group
(a) diverse range (of)
dividing line
documentary evidence
domestic market
domestic sphere
domestic violence
dominant culture
dominant discourse
dominant form
dominant group
dominant ideology
dominant paradigm
dominant position
dominant role
dramatic change
dramatic effect
dramatic increase
draw attention (to)
draw (a) conclusion
draw (a) distinction
draw (a) line
driving force
due process
dynamic equilibrium
dynamic nature
dynamic process
dynamic system
earlier discussion
earlier period
earlier research
earlier stage
earlier study
earlier times
earlier version
earlier work
early decades
early study
easily accessible
(be) easily identified
(be) easily understood
easy access
economic activity
economic affairs
economic analysis
economic benefits
economic change
economic conditions
economic consequences
economic context
economic crisis
economic exploitation
economic factors
economic forces
economic goal
economic growth
economic inequality
economic integration
economic interests
economic policy
economic power
economic prosperity
economic reform
economic relations
economic relationships
economic resources
economic sector
economic stability
economic status
economic structure
economic success
economic system
economic theory
economic value
economic welfare
educational institution
educational opportunity
educational policy
educational programme
educational provision
educational qualification
educational research
educational setting
educational system
effective communication
effective implementation
effective intervention
effective management
effective method
effective participation
effective policy
effective treatment
electronic access
electronic communication
electronic media
electronic resources
electronic version
emotional impact
emotional intelligence
emotional reaction
emotional response
emotional support
empirical data
empirical evidence
empirical investigation
empirical research
empirical study
empirical support
empirical work
employ (a) method
employ (a) technique
employment opportunities
encounter difficulties
encounter problems
encourage (the) development (of)
engage in (an) activity
enhance learning
enhance performance
(an) enormous amount (of)
enormous impact
entire period
(the) entire range (of)
entirely clear
entirely different
entirely new
environmental changes
environmental concern
environmental consequences
environmental damage
environmental degradation
environmental effects
environmental factors
environmental impact
environmental issues
environmental policy
environmental pollution
environmental protection
equal access
equal opportunity
equal status
equal treatment
equally important
equally likely
equally true
equally valid
essential component
essential element
essential feature
essential function
essential information
essential role
establish (a) relationship
established order
established practice
established principle
ethical consideration
ethical dilemma
ethical issue
ethical principle
ethical problem
ethical question
ethnic community
ethnic differences
ethnic diversity
ethnic group
ethnic identity
ethnic minority
ethnic origin
ever changing
ever increasing
evolutionary process
evolutionary theory
examine (the) role (of)
exceptional case
exceptional circumstances
exercise authority
existing data
existing research
existing structure
expand rapidly
experience difficulties
experience problems
experiential learning
experimental conditions
experimental data
experimental design
experimental evidence
experimental method
experimental research
experimental results
experimental study
experimental work
expert opinion
explanatory power
explore further
explore (an) issue
extended period
extensive research
(be) extensively used
external environment
external factors
external forces
external influences
external source
external threat
external world
extract data
extract information
extremely complex
extremely powerful
extremely sensitive
extremely useful
extremely valuable
face difficulties
face discrimination
face (a) challenge
face (a) dilemma
face (a) problem
facial expression
facilitate (the) development (of)
factual information
fair treatment
fairly clear
fairly common
fairly obvious
fairly straightforward
fall into (the) category (of)
(be) far removed (from)
federal agency
federal government
federal state
feminist movement
field research
final analysis
final answer
final chapter
final decision
final outcome
final phase
final point
final position
final product
final result
final section
final stage
final step
final version
financial affairs
financial assistance
financial institution
financial management
financial market
financial problem
financial resources
financial support
find evidence
find information
finite number
(be) firmly established
first author
first contact
first draft
first encounter
first generation
first impression
first phase
first priority
flexible approach
focal point
focus attention (on)
focus on (an) aspect
follow (a) format
follow (a) procedure
follow instructions
following chapter
foreign currency
foreign investment
foreign investor
foreign policy
formal structure
free access
free movement
freely available
(be) frequently cited
(be) frequently found
(be) frequently referred (to)
(be) frequently used
fulfil (an) obligation
full analysis
full employment
full information
full participation
full potential
(a, the) full range (of)
fuller discussion
fully aware
(be) fully developed
(be) fully informed
(be) fully integrated
(be) fully realized
fully understand
functional requirement
fundamental aspect
fundamental assumption
fundamental change
fundamental component
fundamental difference
fundamental importance
fundamental principle
fundamental problem
fundamental question
fundamentally different
further analysis
further consideration
further development
(be) further divided (into)
further evidence
further explanation
further information
further investigation
further research
further study
future development
future prospects
future research
future study
gain access (to)
gain information
gain insight (into)
gather data
gather information
gender equality
gender stereotype
general agreement
general approach
general argument
general aspect
general category
general conclusion
general consensus
general definition
general feature
general formula
general overview
general principle
general statement
general tendency
general theory
general trend
(be) generally accepted
generally agree
(be) generally assumed
(be) generally considered
(be) generally found
(be) generally known (as, by)
genetic variation
geographic(al) area
geographic(al) distribution
geographic(al) location
get involved (with/in)
give access (to)
give consent
give consideration
give emphasis
give evidence
give feedback
give priority (to)
give guidance
give information
give insight (into)
give (a) presentation
give (an) explanation
give (an) indication (of)
give (an) overview (of)
(to) give (an) impression
(to) give (a) treatment
given information
given period
global capitalism
global context
global culture
global economy
global issue
global market
global marketplace
global media
global network
global perspective
global shift
global structure
global trade
global village
government control
government department
government expenditure
government intervention
government policy
graphical representation
great accuracy
great diversity
great impact
great majority
great potential
(a) great proportion (of)
(a) great range (of)
great significance
greater autonomy
greater awareness
greater emphasis
greater equality
greater flexibility
greater likelihood
greatly enhance
greatly increase
(be) greatly influenced (by)
(be) greatly reduced
grow rapidly
growing awareness
growing trend
guiding principle
hardly surprising
have access (to)
have consequences
have limitations
have potential
have (a) strategy
have (a) tendency (to)
have (an) obligation
heated debate
(be) heavily influenced (by)
hierarchical structure
high concentration
high correlation
high expectations
high incidence
high intensity
high level
high order
high percentage
high priority
high probability
high profile
(a) high proportion (of)
high quality
high rate
high score
high standard
high status
high turnover
high unemployment
high value
high/er frequency
(a) higher degree (of)
higher education
(be) highly charged
highly competitive
highly complex
highly controversial
(be) highly correlated (with)
highly critical
highly dependent
highly desirable
(be) highly developed
(be) highly educated
highly effective
highly efficient
highly influential
highly likely
highly problematic
highly relevant
highly selective
highly sensitive
highly significant
highly skilled
highly sophisticated
(be) highly structured
highly successful
highly unlikely
(be) highly valued
highly variable
historical account
historical analysis
historical background
historical change
historical circumstances
historical context
historical data
historical development
historical event
historical evidence
historical factors
historical interpretation
historical knowledge
historical period
historical perspective
historical reality
historical record
historical roots
historical study
historical writing
historically specific
hold (a) conference
holistic approach
homogeneous group
(a) huge amount (of)
human activity
human behaviour
human interaction
human society
human species
(be) ideally suited
identify factors
identify features
identify problem
identify (a) way
identify (an) area
identify (an) issue
immediate environment
immediately apparent
immediately following
immediately obvious
immediately preceding
imported goods
imported products
impose constraints
impose limitations
impose restrictions
improved performance
increase awareness
increase dramatically
increase (the) likelihood
increased awareness
increased competition
increased demand
increased importance
increased interest
increased level
increased number
increased pressure
increased production
increased productivity
increased risk
increasing awareness
increasing complexity
increasing demand
increasing emphasis
increasing importance
increasing interest
increasing pressure
(a) increasing proportion (of)
increasing tendency
increasing trend
increasingly aware
increasingly common
increasingly complex
increasingly difficult
increasingly important
increasingly popular
increasingly sophisticated
independent state
independent variable
indigenous people
indigenous population
individual behaviour
individual case
individual characteristics
individual choice
individual component
individual differences
individual element
individual experience
individual interests
individual item
individual needs
individual response
individual responsibility
individual rights
individual variable
individual variation
industrial capitalism
industrial country
industrial development
industrial production
industrial society
industrialized country
industrialized nation
(be) inextricably linked (to, with)
infinite number
information flow
information gathering
information processing
information retrieval
information sharing
informed consent
initial period
initial phase
initial position
initial research
initial stage
institutional arrangement
institutional context
institutional framework
institutional structure
institutional support
integral part
integrated approach
integrated system
intellectual property
intellectual work
intensive study
interested party
internal affairs
internal conflict
internal control
internal market
internal organ
internal structure
international agreement
international body
international community
international conference
international context
international journal
international organization
international treaty
internet access
interpersonal relationships
interpersonal skills
interpret data
intimate relationship
(be) intimately connected (to, with)
intrinsic value
introduce legislation
introductory chapter
introductory section
introductory text
keenly aware
key area
key aspect
key characteristic
key component
key concept
key element
key factor
key feature
key findings
key issue
key objective
key player
key policy
key principle
key role
key source
key text
key theme
key topic
large majority
large percentage
large portion
(a) large proportion (of)
large quantities (of)
(a) large range (of)
(be) largely based (on)
(be) largely confined (to)
(be) largely determined (by)
(be) largely ignored
(be) largely responsible (for)
later work
later writings
lead to (the) conclusion
leading role
learning activity
learning difficulties
learning environment
learning objective
learning outcome
learning process
learning resources
learning strategy
legal action
legal basis
legal framework
legal issue
legal obligation
legal position
legal proceedings
legal protection
legal requirement
legal right
legal rule
legal status
legal system
legislative measures
legislative power
liberal democracy
lifelong learning
likely impact
likely outcome
limited access
limited capacity
limited information
limited opportunity
(a) limited range (of)
limited resources
linear relationship
literal interpretation
literal meaning
(in a) literal sense
literary text
literary tradition
little evidence
little impact
little information
little research
little significance
living conditions
living organism
living standard
local area
local authority
local circumstances
local community
local culture
local economy
local government
logical approach
logical argument
logical conclusion
long duration
long established
longitudinal study
low income
low intensity
low level
low percentage
low priority
low probability
low profile
low quality
low status
low turnover
low unemployment
low/er frequency
lower class
main area
main argument
main category
main characteristics
main component
main element
main factor
main feature
main findings
main focus
main function
main issue
main principle
main source
main task
main theme
(be) mainly concerned (with)
maintain contact
major advantage
major area
major cause
major challenge
major change
major component
major concern
major contribution
major decision
major difference
major factor
major feature
major focus
major impact
major implications
major influence
major issue
major part
major problem
major reason
major role
major shift
major source
major theme
make adjustments
make arrangements
make available
make aware
make contact
make (a) contribution
make explicit
make policy
make provision
make visible
make (a) comment
make (a) distinction
make (a) living
make (a) prediction
make (a) recommendation
make (a) statement
make (a) transition
make (an) argument
make (an) assessment
make (an) assumption
make (an) impact
make (an) impression
make (an) observation
make(a) judgement
male dominance
manual worker
manufacturing sector
marked contrast
(be) markedly different
maximum duration
mean score
(in a) meaningful way
media coverage
medical assistance
medical treatment
meet criteria
meet expectations
meet (a) requirement
meet (a) target
meet (an) objective
mental health
mental illness
mental state
methodological approach
methodological issue
methodological problem
metropolitan area
middle income
middle management
migrant worker
military action
military force
military power
military service
minimum level
minimum requirement
minimum standard
minimum value
minimum wage
minor change
minor role
minority group
missing data
modern culture
modern method
modern society
modern technology
modified form
modified version
moral dilemma
moral philosophy
moral principle
multiple identities
multiple sources
municipal government
mutual recognition
mutual support
mutual trust
mutual understanding
mutually exclusive
narrow definition
(a) narrow range (of)
national average
national boundary
national conference
national culture
national economy
national government
national identity
national income
national institution
national interest
national language
national legislation
national market
national media
national movement
national policy
national press
national security
national survey
native speaker
natural conditions
natural disaster
natural environment
natural history
natural language
natural law
natural order
natural philosophy
natural process
natural resources
natural right
natural science
natural tendency
natural world
naturally occurring
necessary information
negative aspect
negative attitude
negative connotation
negative consequences
negative correlation
negative effect
negative feedback
negative impact
negative outcome
negative side
negative stereotype
negative value
negative view
(be) negatively correlated (with)
new initiative
new insight
new perspective
newly acquired
newly created
newly discovered
newly emerging
newly established
newly formed
next decade
next generation
next phase
normal conditions
normal development
normal distribution
normal practice
notable exception
nuclear energy
nuclear family
nuclear power
nuclear war
nuclear weapon
numerical data
numerical value
numerous studies
objective criteria
objective reality
obtain data
obtain information
obtain (a) result
obvious difference
obvious example
obvious point
obvious reason
occur frequently
occur naturally
offer insight (into)
offer (an) opportunity
official statistics
once established
ongoing debate
ongoing process
online access
online database
online journal
online version
open access
opening chapter
opening section
opinion leader
optimal solution
oral history
oral presentation
organising principle
organizational structure
original author
original context
original data
original intent
original meaning
original model
original position
original research
original source
original text
original version
original work
(be) originally developed
(be) originally intended
overall aim
overall effect
overall level
overall performance
overall picture
overall rate
overall structure
overwhelming majority
paid employment
(be of) paramount importance
particular area
particular aspect
particular emphasis
particular feature
particular focus
particular individual
particular meaning
particularly acute
particularly apparent
particularly appropriate
(be) particularly concerned (with)
particularly effective
(be) particularly evident
particularly influential
particularly relevant
particularly sensitive
particularly significant
particularly striking
particularly successful
(be) particularly suited (to)
particularly useful
particularly valuable
(be) partly responsible (for)
party leader
past research
peace treaty
perceived importance
perceived need
perceived threat
perform (a) function
perform (a) study
perform (a) task
personal choice
personal circumstances
personal communication
personal contact
personal control
personal experience
personal information
personal interest
personal knowledge
personal quality
personal relationship
personal responsibility
personal safety
personal space
physical activity
physical appearance
physical characteristics
physical contact
physical development
physical environment
physical features
physical health
physical needs
physical presence
physical properties
physical proximity
physical science
physical space
physical symptom
physical world
pilot study
pioneering work
pivotal role
place emphasis
planning stage
plausible explanation
play (a) role (in)
political activism
political activity
political agenda
political arena
political authority
political circumstances
political climate
political conflict
political consciousness
political consensus
political consequences
political consideration
political context
political culture
political debate
political dimension
political economy
political environment
political factors
political identity
political ideology
political implications
political instability
political institution
political leader
political mobilization
political movement
political organization
political participation
political party
political philosophy
political reality
political reform
political representation
political significance
political spectrum
political stability
political status
political structure
politically correct
(be) politically motivated
(be) poorly understood
popular culture
popular media
pose (a) challenge
pose (a) problem
pose (a) question
pose (a) threat (to)
positive action
positive aspect
positive attitude
positive connotation
positive correlation
positive discrimination
positive effect
positive feature
positive feedback
positive image
positive impact
positive influence
positive outcome
positive relationship
positive result
positive value
positive view
(be) positively associated (with)
(be) positively correlated (with)
possible consequences
possible explanation
possible outcome
possible source
potential benefits
potential conflict
potential customer
potential harm
potential impact
potential problem
potential risk
potential source
potential value
potentially dangerous
powerful force
powerful group
powerful influence
powerful tool
practical consideration
practical difficulties
practical issue
practical significance
preceding chapter
preceding discussion
preceding section
precise definition
precise nature
predictive power
preferential treatment
preliminary data
preliminary findings
preliminary result
premature death
present context
present data
present difficulties
present evidence
present (a) challenge
present (a) summary
present (an) argument
presidential election
previous chapter
previous decade
previous discussion
previous experience
previous generation
previous knowledge
previous paragraph
previous part
previous research
previous section
previous study
previous work
previously described
previously discussed
previously known
previously mentioned
previously thought
(be) primarily concerned (with)
(be) primarily responsible (for)
primary aim
primary care
primary concern
primary data
primary education
primary focus
primary function
primary objective
primary purpose
primary reason
primary research
primary responsibility
primary source
primary task
prime example
prime time
principal source
prior experience
prior knowledge
private individual
private investment
private sector
private sphere
privileged position
problem area
process data
process information
professional activity
professional body
professional colleague
professional development
professional experience
professional knowledge
professional practice
professional qualification
professional staff
professional standard
professional status
professional support
professional training
professional work
profound effect
profound impact
prominent feature
prominent member
prominent role
promote equality
promote (the) development (of)
(be) properly understood
proposed legislation
prove successful
prove useful
provide access (to)
provide assistance
provide care
provide context
provide coverage
provide data
provide evidence
provide feedback
provide guidance
provide information
provide material
provide resources
provide support
provide feedback
provide insight (into)
provide (a) benefit
provide (a) clue
provide (a) focus
provide (a) foundation (for)
provide (a) service
provide (a) source
provide (a) summary
provide (an) alternative
provide (an) example
provide (an) explanation
provide (an) illustration
provide (an) indication (of)
provide (an) opportunity
provide (an) overview (of)
public access
public administration
public attitudes
public authority
public awareness
public debate
public discourse
public display
public domain
public expenditure
public funds
public image
public institution
public perception
public policy
public sector
public sphere
public transport
public welfare
publicly available
publish research
publish (a) journal
publish (a) report
publish (an) article
published literature
published material
published research
published work
purchasing power
qualitative analysis
qualitative approach
qualitative data
qualitative method
qualitative research
qualitative study
qualitatively different
quantitative analysis
quantitative approach
quantitative data
quantitative method
quantitative research
quantitative result
quantitative study
racial differences
racial discrimination
racial equality
racial group
racial stereotype
radical change
radical critique
radical differences
radical transformation
radically different
raise awareness
raise (a) question
raise (an) issue
random error
random sample
random variable
(be) randomly assigned (to)
(be) randomly chosen
(be) randomly selected
rapid expansion
rapidly changing
rapidly growing
raw data
reach (a) consensus
reach (a) peak
reach (an) agreement
readily accessible
readily available
(be) readily understood
ready access
real issue
receive feedback
receive information
receive treatment
recent decades
recent evidence
recent research
recent study
recent survey
reciprocal relationship
record data
recurrent theme
reduce emissions
reduce stress
reduce (the) likelihood
reflective practice
reflective question
regional development
regional differences
regional variation
regulatory agency
regulatory framework
related activity
related area
related aspect
related factor
related information
related issue
related problem
related question
related topic
relative autonomy
relative merits
relative status
relatively common
relatively constant
relatively few
relatively high
relatively little
relatively low
relatively minor
relatively rare
relatively recent
relatively simple
relatively stable
relatively straightforward
relevant data
relevant factors
relevant information
relevant issue
relevant literature
relevant material
reliable data
reliable information
religious belief
religious faith
religious freedom
religious group
religious identity
religious movement
religious practice
rely heavily (on)
remain constant
remain stable
remain unchanged
remain unclear
remarkably similar
renewable energy
renewed interest
report data
report findings
representative government
require consideration
require knowledge
require resources
research effort
research evidence
research findings
research methodology
(for) research purposes
research topic
resolve (a) conflict
resolve (a) dispute
respond appropriately
review (a) study
revised edition
revised version
rich source
rising cost
risk assessment
roughly equal
roughly equivalent
ruling class
ruling party
rural area
rural community
rural economy
rural population
rural society
safe sex
salient characteristic
salient feature
scarce resources
schematic representation
scholarly journal
scholarly literature
scholarly research
scholarly work
scientific community
scientific discourse
scientific evidence
scientific investigation
scientific method
scientific objectivity
scientific research
scientific theory
secondary data
secondary education
secondary source
security policy
seek help
seek information
seem appropriate
seem obvious
seem plausible
seem unlikely
seminal study
seminal work
senior management
separate entity
serious challenge
serious consequences
serious offence
serve (a) function
service sector
set (a) goal
set (a) target
set (an) objective
set (the) agenda
set (the) parameters
severely affect
sexual abuse
sexual act
sexual behaviour
sexual contact
sexual difference
sexual exploitation
sexual identity
sexual intercourse
sexual orientation
sexual violence
share information
shared experience
shared meaning
shared values
sharp contrast
sharp distinction
shift emphasis
short duration
short period
show evidence
show variation
show (a) tendency
show (a) trend
sign (a) treaty
(a) significant amount (of)
significant change
significant contribution
significant correlation
(a) significant degree (of)
significant development
significant difference
significant effect
significant factor
significant feature
significant figures
significant growth
significant impact
significant improvement
significant increase
significant influence
significant interaction
significant number
significant part
significant portion
(a) significant proportion (of)
significant reduction
significant relationship
significant role
significant shift
significant variation
significantly affect
(be) significantly correlated (with)
significantly higher
significantly increase
(be) significantly reduced
similar approach
similar argument
similar characteristics
similar effect
similar issue
similar pattern
similar properties
similar result
similar situation
simple majority
simplified version
single currency
single element
single entity
single individual
single issue
single source
single variable
skilled worker
slightly different
slightly higher
slow process
small fraction
small minority
small percentage
small portion
(a) small proportion (of)
small quantities (of)
social activity
social aspect
social attitudes
social background
social behaviour
social circumstances
social conflict
social consequences
social construct
social contact
social context
social democracy
social dimension
social environment
social equality
social exclusion
social expectations
social factors
social function
social identity
social implications
social inequality
social institution
social integration
social interaction
social isolation
social mobility
social movement
social norm
social organization
social phenomenon
social policy
social reform
social relationship
social responsibility
social setting
social significance
social status
social structure
social theory
social transformation
social trend
social welfare
socially acceptable
(be) socially constructed
socially desirable
socially responsible
socio-economic status
solar energy
solar panel
solar power
solar system
source material
sovereign state
(be) sparsely populated
special circumstances
special emphasis
special issue
special relationship
special status
specific area
specific aspect
specific case
specific characteristic
specific context
specific example
specific factor
specific feature
specific focus
specific form
specific function
specific information
specific issue
specific knowledge
specific meaning
specific needs
specific problem
specific purpose
specific question
specific reference
specific sense
specific type
(be) specifically designed (to, for)
standard approach
standard error
standard format
standard method
stark contrast
start (a) process
state explicitly
state sector
statistical analysis
statistical data
statistical information
statistical method
statistical significance
statistical technique
statistical test
statistically significant
store data
store information
strategic decision
strategic importance
strategic management
strategic objective
strategic planning
stress level
striking contrast
striking example
striking feature
strong bond
strong correlation
strong emphasis
strong evidence
strong link
strong reaction
strong relationship
strong tendency
strongly agree
(be) strongly associated (with)
(be) strongly correlated (with)
strongly disagree
(be) strongly influenced (by)
(be) strongly linked
(be) strongly opposed
(be) strongly related (to)
strongly suggest
structural adjustment
structural change
structural element
structural feature
structural properties
subject area
subsequent analysis
subsequent chapter
subsequent development
subsequent study
subsequent work
(a) substantial amount (of)
substantial difference
substantial evidence
substantial number
substantial part
substantially different
successful implementation
sufficient condition
sufficient detail
sufficient evidence
sufficient information
sufficient resources
superior performance
support (an) argument
supporting evidence
survey data
symbiotic relationship
systematic analysis
systematic approach
systematic study
tacit knowledge
take initiative
take precedence (over)
take responsibility
take (a) role (in)
take (an) approach
take into consideration
take on (the) role (of, as)
take up (the) role n(of, as)
target audience
teaching strategy
technical aspect
technical assistance
technical detail
technical expertise
technical issue
technical knowledge
technical problem
technical skill
technical support
technical term
technological advances
technological change
technological development
technological innovation
technological progress
test score
test (a) theory
textual analysis
thematic analysis
theoretical analysis
theoretical approach
theoretical basis
theoretical concept
theoretical debate
theoretical framework
theoretical issue
theoretical model
theoretical perspective
theoretical study
theoretical understanding
theoretical work
think differently
thinking process
third party
thought process
(be) tightly controlled
top management
total income
totally different
traditional approach
traditional culture
traditional form
traditional method
traditional practice
traditional research
traditional society
traditional value
traditional view
transferable skill
transmit data
transmit information
transport system
treat differently
treat equally
typical example
ultimate goal
undergo transformation
underlying assumption
underlying cause
underlying principle
underlying process
underlying reason
underlying structure
undertake research
undertake work
undertake (an) activity
unequal power
unfair treatment
unintended consequences
unique individual
unique opportunity
unique position
(be) universally accepted
unlimited access
unskilled worker
urban area
urban centre
urban design
urban development
urban environment
use criteria
use effectively
use resources
use sparingly
use statistics
use (a) format
use (a) method
use (a) methodology
use (a) procedure
use (a) source
use (a) strategy
use (a) technique
use (a) theory
use (an) approach
use (the) analysis
use (the) definition
use (the) concept
use (the) data
useful information
useful material
useful means
useful source
useful summary
useful tool
valid argument
valuable information
valuable resources
various aspects
vary considerably
vary greatly
vary significantly
vary widely
varying degree
(a) vast amount (of)
vast area
(a) vast array (of)
vast majority
vast number
vast quantities (of)
(a) vast range (of)
verbal communication
verbal language
vested interest
virtual community
virtually impossible
visual image
visual media
visual perception
visual representation
(be of) vital importance
vital part
vital role
vulnerable group
welfare reform
well aware
well designed
(be) well documented
well educated
(be) well established
well received
western democracy
western society
western tradition
whole area
whole period
(a) whole range (of)
wide area
(a) wide array (of)
(a) wide range (of)
wide variation
(be) widely accepted
(be) widely adopted
widely available
(be) widely believed
widely different
(be) widely discussed
(be) widely dispersed
(be) widely distributed
(be) widely known
widely read
(be) widely recognized
(be) widely regarded (as)
widely shared
(be) widely used
wider audience
wider community
wider context
wider implications
wider issue
wider public
wider society
widespread acceptance
widespread belief
widespread support
widespread use
work effectively
written comment
written communication
written statement
younger generation


IELTS: Overview and Tips from IDP Education

An IELTS preparation product by IDP Education, featuring more than 40 minutes of IELTS tips, presented by IELTS Expert, Don Oliver.

0:51 Did you know?
5:02 Preparing for IELTS
9:05 IELTS test format
11:36 How your skills are assessed
15:37 FAQs about the Writing test
21:08 FAQs about the Reading test
25:04 FAQs about the Listening test
27:40 Watch a sample Speaking test
32:39 FAQs about the Speaking test
37:41 What to expect on test day
39:08 How you receive your results
41:46 Questions and answers
43:40 Next steps


Writing a medical curriculum vitae (CV)

blue and silver stetoscope
Photo by Pixabay on Pexels.com

A curriculum vitae (CV) is a document that enables to secure an interview, a job, a post or a grant. It also serves as an updated record of skills and accomplishments gained so far.

A CV that is used to apply for medical jobs is known as a medical CV. Nowadays, most medical job applications are submitted online in a fixed format; nonetheless, CVs on paper or digital, are required for certain jobs like surgical training, general practice training, electives, portfolio assessment, grants, or any consultant post. Thus, the CV should be updated regularly, and also customized according to the job requirements.

A medical CV may have any number of headings. Nevertheless, past quantitative and qualitative medical studies recommend the following headings:

1. Introduction or Cover Letter
2. Personal details
3. Medical Career statement
4. Educational and Professional qualifications
5. Current job details
6. Previous job(s) details or Career History
7. Medical or non-medical voluntary work experience
8. Clinical audits or quality improvement work experience
9. Leadership and management skills in medical or non-medical fields
10. Publications and presentations
11. Teaching experience, formal or informal
12. Awards and prizes received
13. Organizing or participating in educational symposiums and training courses
14. Information Technology (IT) skills
15. Accreditation and Membership to professional bodies
16. Personal interests
17. Referees
18. Appendix, if required

The suggested content of the headings is as follows:

1. Introduction or Cover Letter

– the job role is explicitly mentioned. The purpose of the CV should be immediately identified as an application for the stated job role.
– a brief introduction of the applicant should be given.
– why the applicant wants to apply for the job role should be stated.
– it should not exceed a single page.

2. Personal details

– full name followed by abbreviated qualifications (for example, MD, MBBS, BSc).
– registered medical council number/medical defense number, if applicable.
– date of birth, nationality, and sex.
– contact details, including address, phone number and email. Only professional contact details should be provided and not personal contact details.

3. Medical Career statement

– highlight why the applicant is most suitable for the job, by stating relevant medical experience and skills.
– state how the job can help the applicant achieve future professional goals.

4. Educational and Professional qualifications

– the most recent qualification should be listed first.
– scanned qualifications may be placed in the Appendix, or website links may be provided.

5. Current job details

– state current job profile, role, responsibilities, and skills required.
– state other relevant information like the name of the hospital, name of the supervisor, and the date of joining.

6. Previous job(s) details or Career History

– list the relevant jobs held so far, with the most recent job first.
– there is no need to list all the jobs held in the past, and only the relevant jobs should be listed. For example, if the application is for a surgical job, then previous jobs where surgical skills were demonstrated, are relevant jobs and thus, they may be listed.
– listing should include the joining and the termination dates.
– briefly mention the relevant past job profile, role, responsibilities, skills required, and the names of the hospital and the supervisor.

7. Medical or non-medical voluntary work experience

– mention medical experience, for example specialty experience, gained voluntarily.
– state any non-medical experience, for example charity work, gained voluntarily.
– in both the cases, mention what the applicant gained from the voluntary work experiences.

8. Clinical audits or quality improvement work experience

– state any clinical audits or quality improvement works undertaken.
– include the starting and termination dates, the topic of the audit, the role performed, any best practices or guidelines employed, the conclusions reached, and the future consequences or outcomes.

9. Leadership and management skills in medical or non-medical fields

– a doctor must have leadership and management skills, which can be highlighted by showing examples of organizing events, supervising juniors, or holding positions in committees. These examples can relate to medical or non-medical fields.

10. Publications and presentations

– state the publications as they appear in journals and if available, also state the PubMed identification numbers. Any presentations, posters, audits or research projects can also be included in this section.

11. Teaching experience, formal or informal

– state what was taught and to whom it was taught. The topic and the audience should preferably be related to the medical profession. The teaching may be at any level of education and may also be in formal or informal settings. Feedback forms or signed certificates can provide the required evidence of the teaching experience. It is important to state what has been gained from this teaching experience.

12. Awards and prizes received

– list all the awards and prizes received so far, at work and in education. All listings should be ordered with the most recent one appearing on top. The awards that are most relevant to the job application should be highlighted.

13. Organizing or participating in educational symposiums and training courses

– include relevant training courses, for example, for a surgical job application a suturing course, or life support course, is a value addition to the CV. Research, teaching, or management courses are relevant for most medical jobs. Relevancy is also given to language courses or language examinations taken. Generally, courses related to the preparation of examinations are not relevant.
– brief details of each course should include the title, date, and duration of the course.
– the courses may be arranged geographically as regional, national, or international courses. They may also be arranged chronologically. Usually, they are arranged in the order of relevancy, with the courses most relevant to the job being listed first.

14. Information Technology (IT) skills

– include relevant skills in information technology like having the ability of prescribing drugs via a computer. IT skills may include knowing how to use basic software packages like MS Excel or Word, or specialist packages like databases and statistics packages for research.

15. Accreditation and Membership to professional bodies

– list all the society and professional memberships.
– listing should contain those memberships where the applicant has or had been elected.
– after the elected-memberships, the listing may contain those memberships where the applicant had to pay subscription fees or joining fees.

16. Personal interests

– personal interests show the applicant as a well-balanced individual. It is important that no exaggeration or fabrication is attempted while stating the personal interests.
– personal interests may include extracurricular activities like reading, playing golf, going to the gym, charity work, participation in free health clinics, blood donation camps, and any other interest.
– it is important to explain why the stated activity holds interest, what can be gained by doing the activity, and how the activity satisfies or improves the role of being a doctor.

17. Referees

– at least two letters of reference should be included.
– the referees must agree to issue their letters of reference.
– the referees should be made aware of the job role applied, so that they can formulate their letters accordingly.
– if the referees are currently not available, then the references may be listed as “available upon request”.
– any person can become a referee; however, medical professionals as referees are recommended for medical job applications.

18. Appendix, if required

– all scanned documents, suitably identified in the content, should be placed in the appendix.
– web links to relevant websites may also be placed.

A medical CV is formatted in an A4 size page in 12-point Times Roman or Arial font. The minimum margins are 1″ all around. The content should be brief and succinctly stated in bullet points. Large paragraphs should be avoided, and if more details need to be inserted then an Appendix may be included. All scanned copies of qualifications, photos, awards, certifications, and other relevant documents are placed in the Appendix.

The content of the CV should be structured in simple sentences with professional and appropriate medical terminology. Usage of active voice is encouraged along with a positive focus on skills gained. Under no circumstances should false or fabricated information be included and likewise, exaggeration should be strictly avoided.

There is no fixed number of pages for a medical CV. Generally, it is of about 3-4 pages long; however, if there is an Appendix, then the number of pages may increase significantly. The CV should be printed on high-quality white paper.

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2. Chambler AF, Chapman-Sheath PJ, Pearse MF. A model curriculum vitae: what are the trainers looking for? Hosp Med 1998;59:324–6.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9722375
3. Beckett M. A mentorship scheme for senior house officers. Hosp Med 2000;61:861–2.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11211589
4. Wright SM, Ziegelstein RC. Writing more informative letters of reference. J Gen Intern Med 2004;19(pt 2):588–93  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15109330
5. Galdino GM, Gotway M. The digital curriculum vitae. J Am Coll Radiol 2005;2:183–8.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17411789
6. Smith PEM, Dunstan FD, Wiles CM. Selecting specialist registrars by station interview. Clin Med 2006;6:279–80.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16826862
7. McKenna AM, Straus SE. Charting a professional course: a review of mentorship in medicine. J Am Coll Radiol 2011;8:109–12.  https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21292186
8. Agha R, Whitehurst K, Jafree D, Devabalan Y, Koshy K, Gundogan B. How to write a medical CV. Int J Surg Oncol (N Y). 2017;2(6):e32. https://insights.ovid.com/crossref?an=01943953-201707000-00011


Few Lectures – YouTube videos

Note : These videos are not presented in any particular order and thus, no video is better than the other.

Shah Rukh Khan

Receiving his honorary doctorate degree

Dr Shah Rukh Khan, Bollywood actor, delivers his public lecture entitled Life Lessons. Dr Khan is one of the most influential actors in the world, having appeared in more than 80 Bollywood films. He has received 14 Filmfare Awards, honouring excellence in the Hindi language film industry. He was awarded one of India’s highest civilian awards, the Padma Shri, in 2005. In this lecture, Dr Khan talks about happiness, success, and lessons learnt throughout his career. Recorded on 15 October 2015 at the University of Edinburgh’s New College.

Julian Treasure

How to speak so that people want to listen

Have you ever felt like you’re talking, but nobody is listening? Here’s Julian Treasure to help you fix that. As the sound expert demonstrates some useful vocal exercises and shares tips on how to speak with empathy, he offers his vision for a sonorous world of listening and understanding.

Sir Ken Robinson

Do schools kill creativity?

Sir Ken Robinson makes an entertaining and a moving case for creating an education system that nurtures (rather than undermines) creativity.

Tony Robbins

Why we do what we do

Tony Robbins discusses the “invisible forces” that make us do what we do.

Elizabeth Gilbert

Your elusive creative genius

“Eat, Pray, Love” author Elizabeth Gilbert muses on the impossible things we expect from artists and geniuses — and shares the radical idea that, instead of the rare person “being” a genius, all of us “have” a genius. It’s a funny, personal and surprisingly moving talk.

Dan Gilbert

Why are we happy? Why aren’t we happy?

Dan Gilbert, author of Stumbling on Happiness, challenges the idea that we’ll be miserable if we don’t get what we want. Our “psychological immune system” lets us feel truly happy even when things don’t go as planned.

Mary Roach

10 things you didn’t know about orgasm

“Bonk” author Mary Roach delves into obscure scientific research, some of it centuries old, to make 10 surprising claims about sexual climax, ranging from the bizarre to the hilarious. (This talk is aimed at adults. Viewer discretion advised.)

Sophie Scott

Why we laugh

Did you know that you’re 30 times more likely to laugh if you’re with somebody else than if you’re alone? Cognitive neuroscientist Sophie Scott shares this and other surprising facts about laughter.

Mel Robbins

How to stop screwing yourself over

Mel Robbins is a married working mother of three, an ivy-educated criminal lawyer, and one of the top career and relationship experts in America. Widely respected for her grab-’em-by-the-collar advice and tough love, Robbins drills through the mental clutter that stands between people and what they want.

Pamela Meyer

How to spot a liar

On any given day we’re lied to from 10 to 200 times, and the clues to detect those lie can be subtle and counter-intuitive. Pamela Meyer, author of Liespotting, shows the manners and “hotspots” used by those trained to recognize deception — and she argues honesty is a value worth preserving.

Robyn Stein DeLuca

The good news about PMS

Everybody knows that most women go a little crazy right before they get their period, that their reproductive hormones cause their emotions to fluctuate wildly. Except: There’s very little scientific consensus about premenstrual syndrome. Says psychologist Robyn Stein DeLuca, science doesn’t agree on the definition, cause, treatment or even existence of PMS. She explores what we know and don’t know about it — and why the popular myth has persisted.

Simon Sinek

How great leaders inspire action

Simon Sinek presents a simple but powerful model for how leaders inspire action, starting with a golden circle and the question “Why?” His examples include Apple, Martin Luther King, and the Wright brothers — and as a counterpoint Tivo, which (until a recent court victory that tripled its stock price) appeared to be struggling.

Robert Kiyosaki

Rich Dad, Poor Dad – How To Invest In Yourself – Part 1/2 | London Real

Robert Kiyosaki is an entrepreneur, educator, and investor, best known as the author of Rich Dad Poor Dad—the #1 personal finance book of all time. He has challenged and changed the way tens of millions of people around the world think about money. And he has become a passionate and outspoken advocate for financial education.


Thik Hai

Perhaps the original video from which the other songs may have been inspired:

Khesari Lal Yadav:

Sunil Chhaila Bihari, Antra Singh Priyanka:

Tik Tok version:


Isme Tera Ghata Mera Kuch Nahin Jata

Song: Tera Ghata
Album: From Lost To Found
Singer/Composer/Lyricist: Gajendra Verma

कुछ सोच के बोला होगा तुमने
यह प्यार भी तोला होगा तुमने
अब ना है तो फिर ना सही दिलबर
इस दिल को यह समझा लिया हमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

कुछ खास था यह जान लेती जो
मेरी नज़र से देखा होता तुमने
इस बात का बस ग़म हुआ मुझको
थोड़ी सी भी कोशिश न की तुमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

सोचा नहीं था ज़िन्दगी में यूं मिलोगी
मिल के भी तुम न मेरी हो सकोगी
पर याद आएगी जब भी तुम्हारी
शिकायतें न होंगी बस दुआ रहेगी

अब और क्या कहना होगा हमने
करना था जो वह कर लिया तुमने
शायद रहूँ या ना रहूँ दिलबर
बदला कभी यह फैसला तुमने

इसमें तेरा घाटा मेरा कुछ नहीं जाता
ज़्यादा प्यार हो जाता तो मैं सह नहीं पाता

Neha Kakkar:

Rajasthani Version: Tharo Ghato
Singers Anuj Chitlangia, Rapperiya Baalam
Lyrics: Jagirdar Rv
Music: Rapperiya Baalam
Guitar Saurabh Parihar
Backing Vocals : Arjan Singh

Rap Version: Tera Ghata
Music – Young H
Mix & Master – Young H
Rap Lyrics – J19Squad