The past tense describes events that happened at one particular time in the past: “The business declared bankruptcy in 2008.” They did it, it’s done, you know, it happened in the past. A little APA nuance here is that according to APA writers should always use the past tense when talking about research that has been conducted. Or, or things that scholars have done in the past. For example, “Colfax described…” Similarly, I would say “Johnson stated…”, “Peterson found….”, and so on and so forth. You want to use those past tense verbs to talk about research that has been conducted.
[Source: Walden University. https://academicguides.waldenu.edu/c.php?g=465757&p=3437739%5D