10 Thaats and their popular Raagas

ठाठ Ṭhāṭh or थाट Thāṭ is a system of classifying Raagas. This system was introduced by Pandit Vishnunarayan Bhatkhande. A Thaat is also known as मेल Mela. He classified all Raagas within 10 Thaats. A thaat is a system that out of the 12 swars of Hindustani music, uses 7 swars from which a Raaga can be formed.

A thaat has the following characteristics:
1. In any thaat, there must be a minimum of 7 swars
2. The swars must in natural order. Example, after Sa, Re should follow; and after Re, Ga should follow, and so on.
3. A thaat is not sung/played. It is used to create a Raaga, which is sung/played.
4. A single thaat can give several Raagas.

Pandit Bhatkhande outlined 10 Thaats as follows:
1. Kalyaan Thaat
2. Bilaawal Thaat
3. Khamaaj Thaat
4. Bhairav Thaat
5. Poorvi Thaat
6. Maarva Thaat
7. Kaafi Thaat
8. Aasaavari Thaat
9. Bhairavi Thaat
10. Todi Thaat

Each of the above Thaat has a strict Sargam, which is compulsorily followed by all the Raagas in that Thaat. For example, in Bhairav Thaat, Rishabh (Re) and Dhaivat (Dha) are Komal (flat). So, all Raagas in Bhairav Thaat, will compulsorily have Komal re रे॒ and Komal dha ध॒ in them. [Komal is shown with a lower case in English and with an underline in Hindi.] Similarly, in Kalyaan Thaat, Madhyam (Ḿ) is Teevra [Teevra Madhyam Ḿ म॑ is shown with a slanting stroke on top in English, and with an upward line in Hindi.] So, all Raagas in Kalyaan Thaat, will compulsorily have Teevra Ma in them.

The Sargam of each Thaat is as given below:

1. Kalyaan Thaat : S R G Ḿ P D N (Teevra Madhyam Ḿ)
2. Bilaawal Thaat : S R G M P D N (All Shuddha Swars)
3. Khamaaj Thaat : S R G M P D n (Only Nishaad n is komal)
4. Bhairav Thaat : S r G M P d N (Rishabh r and Dhaivat d is komal)
5. Poorvi Thaat : S r G Ḿ P d N (Rishabh r, Dhaivat d, both are komal; and Madhyam Ḿ is Teevra)
6. Maarva Thaat : S r G Ḿ P D N (Rishabh r is komal, Madhyam Ḿ is Teevra)
7. Kaafi Thaat : S R g M P D n (Gaandhaar g, Nishaad n, both are komal)
8. Aasaavari Thaat : S R g M P d n (Gaandhaar g, Dhaivat d, and Nishaad n, all three are komal)
9. Bhairavi Thaat : S r g M P d n (Rishabh r, Gaandhaar g, Dhaivat d, and Nishaad n, all four are komal)
10. Todi Thaat : S r g Ḿ P d N (Rishabh r, Gaandhaar g, and Dhaivat d, all three are komal; and Madhyam Ḿ is Teevra)

१. कल्याण ठाट/थाट- सा रे ग म॑ प ध नि (केवल् म॑ तीव्र)
२. बिलावल – सा रे ग म प ध नि (सारे शुद्ध स्वर)
३, खमाज- सा रे ग म प ध नि॒ (केवल् नि॒ कोमल)
४. भैरव- सा रे॒ ग म प ध॒ नि (रे॒ और ध॒ कोमल)
५. पूर्वी- सा रे॒ ग म॑ प ध॒ नि (रे॒, ध॒ कोमल, और म॑ तीव्र)
६. मारवा- सा रे॒ ग म॑ प ध नि (रे॒ कोमल, और म॑ तीव्र)
७. काफ़ी- सा रे ग॒ म प ध नि॒ (ग॒ और नि॒ कोमल)
८. आसावरी- सा रे ग॒ म प ध॒ नि॒ (ग॒, ध॒ और नि॒ कोमल)
९. भैरवी- सा रे॒ ग॒ म प ध॒ नि॒ (रे॒, ग॒, ध॒ और नि॒ कोमल)
१०. तोड़ी- सा रे॒ ग॒ म॑ प ध॒ नि (रे॒, ग॒, ध॒ कोमल, और म॑ तीव्र)

The popular Raagas in each Thaat are:

1. Kalyaan Thaat: Raagas Kalyaan/ Shuddha Kalyaan, Shyam Kalyan, Bhupaali, Chaandni Kedaar, Chhayaanat, Gaud Saarang, Hameer, Hindol, Kaamod, Kedaar, Nand, Yaman/ Aiman, Yaman Kalyaan

2. Bilaawal Thaat: Raagas Bilaawal/ Alahiya Bilaawal, Bihaag, Nat Bihaag, Bihaagada, Deshkaar/ Desikaar, Durga, Hamsadhwani, Hemkalyaan, Kaushik Dhwani, Shankara

3. Khamaaj Thaat: Raagas Khamaaj, Desh, Gara, Gaud Malhaar, Gaawati, Gorakh Kalyaan, Jayjayvanti, Jhinjhoti, Jog, Kalaavati, Rageshri, Saraswati, Sorat, Tilak Kaamod, Tilang

4. Bhairav Thaat: Raagas Bhairav, Ahir-Bhairav, Nat-Bhairav, Gauri, Gunkali, Jogia, Kaalingadaa, Ramkali, Vibhaas

5. Poorvi Thaat: Raagas Poorvi, Basant, Lakshmi Kalyaan, Lalit, Paraj, Puriyaa Dhanashri, Shree

6. Maarwa Thaat: Raagas Maarwa, Bhankar, Bhatiyaar, Lalit, Puriyaa, Puriyaa Kalyaan, Sohini, Vibhaas

7. Kaafi Thaat: Raagas Kaafi, Abhogi, Bageshri, Bahaar, Barwaa, Bhimpalaasi, Brindaavani Saarang, Chandrakauns, Dhaani, Jog, Megh, Ramdaasi Malhaar, Surdaasi Malhaar, Mian Malhar, Nayaki Kaanhadaa, Patdeep/ Patdeepki/ Pradipki, Piloo, Shahana, Shuddha Saarang

8. Aasaavari Thaat: Raagas Aasaavari, Adaanaa, Darbaari Kaanhadaa, Kaunsi Kaanhadaa, Desi, Dev Gandhaar, Jaunpuri

9. Bhairavi Thaat: Raagas Bhairavi, Bhupal Todi, Bilaskhaani Todi, Komal Rishabh Aasaavari, Maalkauns

10. Todi Thaat: Raagas Todi, Gurjari Todi, Lilaavati, Madhuvanti, Multaani

The Thaat system of classifying Raagas has its limitations; nevertheless, it is extremely useful in ordering thousands of Raagas. Nowadays, the Thaat system is widely followed in Hindustani Classical Music.

~0~

Advertisements

Share your thoughts!

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.