Notation of Hindustani Classical Music

There are many ways of noting down Hindustani Classical Music. For easy typing on keyboards and thus for usage on Internet, a noting system (limited however) is as given below:

In the 12 swars of Hindustani Classical Music, capital lettering is used for Shuddha and small lettering is used for Komal swars. In the case of Madhyam (M), since there is no komal Ma, so small m is used for shuddha and capital M is used for teevra.

S – Shadja or Shadaj,
r – Komal Rishabh,
R – Shuddha Rishabh,
g – Komal Gandhar,
G – Shuddha Gandhar,
m – Shuddha Madhyam,
M – Teevra Madhyam,
P – Pancham,
d – Komal Dhaivat,
D – Shuddha Dhaivat,
n – Komal Nishad,
N – Shuddha Nishad

# Mandra Saptak is shown by a single quote before the Swar.
Example: S ‘n ‘d ‘P, ‘P ‘d ‘n ‘d S
# Madhya Saptak is shown without any quotation marks.
Example: S r G, G (r) S, S G m d~ P, P d P m G, G m\r S
# Taar Saptak is shown by a single quote after the Swar.
Example: S’ r’ S’, n S’ r’ S’, n r’ S’

\ Meend is shown by a slash.
For example in the Raag Bhairav phrase G m\r S there is a meend from Shuddha Madhyam to Komal Rishabh which can be notated as m\r

( ) Kan swar is shown in brackets.
For example G (r)S in this Komal Rishabh is barely touched when coming from Gandhar to Shadaj.

~ Andolan is shown by a tilde.
For example in Bhairav the andolit dhaivat may be notated as d~.


In some of my published books, I have used the following:


सा S = षड्ज Ṣaḍja
रे R = ऋषभ Ṛṣabha
ग G = गांधार Gāndhāra
म M = मध्यम Madhyama
प P = पञ्चम Pañcama
ध D = धैवत Dhaivata
नि N = निषाद Niṣāda
सां S’ = तार षड्ज Tāra Ṣaḍja

कोमल : रे॒ ग॒ म ध॒ नि॒
Komal : r g M d n

तीव्र मध्यम : म॑
Teevra Madhyam : Ḿ (with top slant stroke)

मंद्र अष्टक क्रम : स़ ऱ ग़ म़ प़ ध़ ऩ स
Mandra Ashtaka Krama : ‘S ‘R ‘G ‘M ‘P ‘D ‘N S

मध्य अष्टक क्रम : स र ग म प ध न सं
Madhya Ashtaka Krama : S R G M P D N S’

तार अष्टक क्रम : सं रं गं मं पं धं नं सॅ
Taar Ashtaka Krama : S’ R’ G’ M’ P’ D’ N’ S”

मीण्ड़ (चढ़ती फिसलन) :↗ उदाहरण ध↗सां
Meend (ascending glide) :↗ example D↗S’

मीण्ड़ (उतरती फिसलन) : ↘ उदाहरण म↘रे॒
Meend (descending glide) : ↘ example M↘r

[Note. Websites generally convert an upward/downward right slanting arrow into a graphic. However, it is not a graphic. It is only an upward/downward arrow. Graphics do not look good, but with the advent of emoticons, all symbols like brackets, arrows, colons, and semicolons are converted to graphics automatically. ]

आंदोलित Aandolit : ~ उदाहरण ध॒ ~ example d~

वक्र Vakra : ↬ उदाहरण ↬ग example ↬G

कण Kan : ( ) उदाहरण (ऩ) सा रे॒ सा example (‘N) S r S



One thought on “Notation of Hindustani Classical Music

  1. Pingback: New Notation for Hindustani Classical Music – Rajen Jani

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